II. Grammar

II.1. Preliminary Remark
The Clalian language forms its syntactical relations mainly by auxiliary words and word order (analytic language), therefore having only a very restricted morphology. Predominantly we find compositional morphemes (like the collective suffix -lan); therefore we will treat these here together with those elements of Clalian which can be called "flexional morphemes" in the widest sense. To these we will add the particles important for the syntax, so that what we call grammar here is actually an overview of the parts of speech. In the third part of our description we will take a closer look at the syntax.

II.2. Nouns
The Clalian noun has neither a number nor a proper gender, though it can be modified by suffices which change the semantic content of a word.
Let's take a look at numerus-like morphemes:
Whereas the plural can only be indicated by adding a numeral, whereby the noun itself is not changed (e.g.: tyr arx, three lions; wièx quryns, six scimitars), the suffix -lan debotes a collective noun, i.e. a plurality of things or abstracts treated as a unity. For example: arxlan: the lions, lions as a species, all the lions, etc.; gamlan: humanity, mankind, the human being in general, from gam (man, human). An indefinite number (idefinit suffix) of things, persons, etc. (but always more then one!) is indicated by the suffix -vi (
-fi after consonants); e.g. jydmerfi: several warriors, some warriors; arxfi: some lions.
As suffices specifying gender, markings for masculine or feminine nomina agentis are used: mer (phonetic variant
-wer after vowels) for masculine and -wan (phonetiv variant -fan after consonants) for feminine nomina agentis resp. female animals. E.g.: jydmer: the warrior, from jyde (fight), canfan: the temptress, from canse* (to tempt, seduct), shuwan (the seamstress), from shu'e (to sew), afa: the mare, from av (the horse).

* The <s> from canse is lost when adding the suffix.

II.3. Adjectives and adverbs
Adjctives have no morphology whatever and can not be changed by collective or indefinite suffices. They simply follows the noun they modify; e.g. jydmer barte, the brave warrior.
The comparison of adjectives has two forms: by the particle far in direct comparisons (X is greater etc. than Y) or by mal in the comparative and superlative when acting as a attributive complement to the noun (syntax); e.g. men, small: men mal, smaller, men mal mal, smallest.
In adverbal function the adjective simply follows the verb, e.g.: cent'tu saln: he sings beautifully, cent'tu saln mal mal: he sings most beautiful, very beautiful.

II.4. Pronouns and particles:

II.4.1. Personal Pronouns
The Clalian personal pronoun distinguishes two forms: autonomous pronouns (which normally function as direct objects in sentences) and enclitical pronouns (which act as subjects of a verb):

 auton.  encl.     auton. encl.
 1. pers.


   4. pers.


 2. pers.


   5. pers.


 3. pers.


   6. pers.



The enclitical pronouns can be modified by modal particles (verb).

II.4.2. Possessive Pronouns
The possessive pronouns have only one form no matter if they act as subject or object. They are used but rarely because they only occur in more complex sentences. This has to do with the use of the possessive particle fa which is used in cases of possessive complementation of nouns (syntax)
The possessives are:

1. pers. nau   4. pers. gawu
2. pers. maju   5. pers. shau
3. pers. ty   6. pers. turu

II.4.3. Demonstrative pronouns und -particles
As proper demonstrative pronoun (i.e. the word which has only this funtion) Clalian has only gal (that), which can be used as subject and object; but in complex sentences gal is only used in contrast with the demonstrative particle ta if this appears either directly or has been used at least once. In spoken language it is used more often than in written Clalia or in the heroic sagas. The already mentioned particle ta is also used in the function of subject or object, but is more strongly defined in relation to the predicate than in relation to nouns. Both, gal and ta have anaphorical function.

II.4.4. Interrogative Pronoun
The interrogative pronoun wi? (who?, what?) is used as subject and object in connection with prepositions or independantly.

II.4.5. Relative Particle
The relative particle ja is closely connected to the demonstrative particle ta because both stand in complementary distribution in relation to the whole of the sentence. In certain circumstances they can also occur together.

II.4.6. Indefinite Particle
The suffix occuring with nouns can also connect with other particles to form indefinite pronouns. Examples: tavi, someone (ta + -vi); revi, something (re, thing + -vi); wevi, nobody (we + -vi) etc.
To this is added the negative particle we as an indefinite pronoun with the meaning 'no, nobody' etc.

II.5. Numerals
Like nouns numerals are also unspecified in relation to number and gender, although all numbers apart from 1 (one) are, of course, semantically to be treated as plurals.

 1 uf 6 wièx 11  dàcuf  16 dàfièx 21 uf gidac
2 su 7 haft 12 daxu 17 daxaft 22 su gidac, etc.
3 tyr 8 suven 13 dàctyr 18 dàcact 30 tredac
4 wàt 9 naf 14 dàcfat 19 dàcnaf 40 wàttac
5 fag 10 suwen 15 dàccag 20 gidac 50 fadac

 60 wièdàc  200 su caut
70 haftàc 201 uf su caut
80 àctàc 202 su su caut, etc.
90 nafdàc  300 tyr caut
100 caut 1000 gal

II.5.1. Cardinals

 1. pruna/ufna 6. wièxna 11. dàcufna
2. suna 7. haftna 12. daxuna
3. tyrna 8. suvenna 20. gidàcna
4. wàtna 9. nafna 21. ufna gidàcna
5. fàcna 10. suwenna 22. suna gidàcna
 100. cautna 200. su cautna, etc.  

II.6. Verbs
In contrast to the other parts of speech the Clalian verb is the element of language which still has the most "morphology". Here we can see the important role of the predicate in Clalian: It is the element on which the whole of syntax is oriented: normally it stands at the beginning of the sentence and from its change in positions the rearrangement of the whole sentence follows.
Generally the Clalian verb distinguishes two genera verbi (active, "passive"), five moods (indicative, subjunctive, imperative, optative, intentionalis) and three tenses (present, preterite, finitive*).
* The Finitiv, which here is treated together with the tenses, must rather be associated with the aspectual area because it denotes an action as completed in contrast to the other progressive tenses. But because it is also used for the structuring of temporal events we have treated it with the tenses.

II.6.1. The Fabrication of the Single Forms
In the present the enclitic personal pronouns listed under II.4.1 connect with the verb, whereby the ending on -e is dropped; e.g. cràte (to greet sb.)
Þ cràt'na (I greet/welcome). We have to add here that this ending -- apart from its use as citation form -- indicates that the subject (which similar to inflected languages in Clalian is seen as inherent characteristic of the verb) stands in front of the verb (as proper name or noun). Thus we can call this ending approximately the "neutral" ending of the subject; but more properly spoken it only indicates the absence of the personal pronoun and can therefore be also called "empty morpheme". Furthermore this ending is used for the formation of the verbal noun as well as the "passive" and can also be found in verbal derivates (nouns built from verbs).
For the formation of Intentionalis und Subjunctive the personal ending can be modified by
modal particles. For the intentionalis the following endings result:

 1. pers. -'ina 4. pers. -'iha
2. pers. -'ime 5. pers. -'iha
3. pers. -'ite 6. pers. -'itu

For the subjunctive:

 1. pers. -'ana 4. pers. -'aha
2. pers. -'ame 5. pers. -'aha
3. pers. -'ate 6. pers. -'atu*

* The <a> (of course also the <i>) is a proper syllable and therefore is not changed to <à>. Here we can see that Clalian has no proper inflection; the elements are added enclitically but retain their phonetic autonomy.

To form the optative and finitive auxiliary verbs are used to which the main verb in the base form is added. With this we are actually already in the area of syntax (as with the "personal suffix"), but we will list the whole formation here.
The optative is formed by using the auxiliary verb afe and the main verb; e.g. Af'te darwe san (may he sleep well; literally: He may/shall sleep well.

The finitive is built with the auxiliary verb tir and the main verb; e.g. Tir'te darwe: He has slept; literally: He is ending sleep/has finished sleeping.

To form the preterite the preposition fade is inserted between the copula garte and the coordinated main verb; e.g. Gart'te fada darwe: he slept; lit. He is after sleeping. The copula garte has no proper preterite but only a finitive present; e.g. Tir'te garte sàllmer barte: He was a brave warrior. To this is added a finitive preterite, but this only denotes a phase which is completed in relation to the present; e.g. Tir'te fada garte sàllmer barte: He was a brave warrior (once) (but that is over now).

Of course fada can also occur with the optative and subjunctive; e.g. Af'te fada darwe san: May he have slept well! Literally: He may be after sleeping well! Or: Gart'ate fada darwe: It is possible that he slept. Literally: He can be after sleep.
In the same way the personal endings of the subjuctive can be used with the finitive-auxiliary: Tir'ate darwe: Maybe he has slept (and is awake now). Or: Tir'ate fada darwe: Maybe he had slept.
The imperative has only one form for singular and plural and is built with the pure verb-form (without -e). Half vowels either become the second part of diphtongs here, they drop of or they become consonants. Examples: darwe
Þ darf! (Sleep!); fije Þ fi! (Write!); fraje Þ fraj! (Pay!).

The form which one can call the Clalian "passive" is basically only the combination of the object form of the relative personal pronoun and the impersonal verbal ending. Examples: Lave tu: He is understood (Literally: One understands him). Wale xit: The settlement is built. Word order in the passive is relatively fixed.

II.6.2. Use of Forms
As we already remarked above, the pure tense denotes an action as progressive. Thus e.g. ad'na (I am eating), darf'te (he is sleeping). The
finitive denotes an action which has ended, so that in the present the action has just ended; e.g. Tir'te darwe: He has slept (and is awake now). In connection with the preposition fada it is an action which has been ended in the past. Thus e.g.: Tir'te fada darwe: He had slept.
In conjunction with a second action in the present the finitive is also used to denote actions which follow each other; e.g. Tir'te fada darwe, fad gart'te fada wine fa lyver: He had already slept when his friend came. Literally this sounds something like: He had been after sleep when his friend was after coming. Or: Win'na, wed na tir'na mune: I come as soon as/when I have washed myself (lit. when I have finished washing).

The modal forms (apart from the indicative) have the following meaning:
subjunctive expresses an assumption or a possibility; e.g. Darf'ate: It is possible that he's sleeping; I suppose he's sleeping, etc. Of course it can be also taken negatively: We darf'ate: He's probably not sleeping/I don't believe he's sleeping. Furthermore it stands in subordinate clauses after conjunctions like 'therefore' or 'as', etc.
optative is used to express a wish or an indirect prohibition: Af'te darwe: May he sleep! resp. We af'te darwe: He may/shall not sleep. For direct prohibitions the imperative is used: We darf! Don't sleep!).
intentionalis expresses an intention: Darw'ine: I plan to sleep/want to sleep etc.
Because of this modal meaning the intentionalis can be used to form a future: darw'ite: he wants to/will sleep. The intentionalis can be added to the preterite (e.g. Gart'ina fada darwe: I wanted to sleep), the finitive (e.g. Tir'ite darwe: He wanted to have slept) and optative (e.g. Af'ite darwe: May he want to sleep!/If he but wanted to sleep!).
Together, subjunctive and intentionalis can only be expressed periphrastically; e.g. Man'na darw'ite: I think/believe that he wants to sleep (for: he will want to sleep).

II.7. Prepositions,Conjunctions and Further Particles
II.7.1. Prepositions
af (to, up - to); ant (until); at (in - into); cut (with); du (in, at); ed (from); ef (out - of, out): ent (opposite of); fada (after [temp.]); fahe (behind, back); fe (onto); fir (through); fraç (against); fri (before, in front of); ge (under); gu (at, near); han (beside); iv (past); jèx (out, from); màt (between); ne (out of, beyond); qam (through, with [instr.]); tar (for); yd (over).

II.7.2. Conjunctions
dan (as long as); dana (as long as + [negative consequence]); ec (because); (even); erf (but); et (or); fad (as); fada (after); fase (during); qe (and); qeja (although); ti (that, therefore); tin (that not); wed (if, as soon as); weda (if not).