Starting with the word order of the Clalian sentence, in the following we will discuss the general possibilities of sentence structure in Clalian. The main principle here is that the informational centre of the sentence -- that which is to be especially emphasized (in the following called "focus") -- in Clalian stands at the beginning of the sentence.
III.1. Main Word Order and Modifications
In the main word order the predicate with the enclitic personal pronoun stands at the beginning of the sentence and the other members line up behind it: at first the direct object -- that on which the action coded in the predicate is carried out -- and afterwards possible indirect objects; if there are complements to the objects (adjectives, attributes, etc.) they follow them and are partly connected to them by particles or prepositions. E.g. Da'na (predicate) fyn (direct object) ferç (indirect object): I give the cup to the father. An example with a complement to the direct object: Ga'na fyn cut gun ferç: I gave to the father the cup with wine. If the subject stands in front of the predicate, this adds the empty morpheme -e; e.g. Ferç da'e fyn na: The father gives the cup to me.
If a constituent of the sentence other than the predicate is to be emphasized, this stands at the beginning of the sentence and is represented in front of the predicate by a particle; if the direct object is to be emphasized, the demonstrative particle ta stands before the predicate; if the indirect object is to be emphasized, the relative particle ja is used. This always has second position! Examples: Fyn ta da'na ferç: I give the cup to the father (literally: The cup, this I give to the father). Ferç ja da'na fyn: I give the cup to the father (lit.: The father, to whom I give the cup). If the subject is to be the focus of the sentence, the independant personal pronoun stands at the beginning of the sentence and the base form of the verb has second position; e.g. Na da'e fyn ferç: I give the cup to the father.
Auxiliary and modal verbs do not change this word order; e.g. Tir'na da'e fyn ferç: I have given the cup to the father. Fyn, ta tir'na da'e ferç: The cup I have given to the father. Gart'na fada da'e fyn: I gave the cup to the father, etc.
III.2. Direct interrogative clause
Before we get to the complements of the constituents of the sentence in Clalian, we have to make some remarks about direct interrogative clauses. Direct interrogative clauses are main sentences which contain a question. Here we can distinguish word-, sentential and double questions. While word questions are introduced by interrogative pronouns (who?, what?), sentential and double questions are introduced by the interrogative particle anu?. In all interrogative clauses the predicate normally has second position. When emphasizing a different constituent of the sentence this follows after the interrogative particle and is represented by the demonstrative and relative particle like in other main clauses. Examples: Wi treg'te sha?: Who helps you? Anu treg'we tu?: Do you help him? Anu gam* ta treg'we?: You are helping this man?
In double questions the second member is introduced by et; e.g. Anu treg'we tu et na?: Do you help him or me?
*In the above sentence gam in Clalian is taken to be a direct object, because the verb trege (to trust) has two arguments. Who (subject) helps/trusts whom (object). Therefore ta is used.
III.3. Nominal Complements (Coordination)
Subjects and objects can be qualified by other words (nouns, adjectives) (as regards sentential complements, see III.4.).
Coordinated nouns need certain particles to connect them to the nouns they qualify. Here attributive and possessive complements are to be distinguished; attributive complements are connected to their referent by an, possessive complements by fa or a possessive pronoun. Qualifying adjectives follow the noun and need no particle (e.g. jydmer barte: the brave warrior).
Attributive complements are nouns which either establish a relation between nouns or which qualify another term; e.g. ahew an ferç: the wish of the father ("relational attribute"); nau ferç, an fatmer; my father, the ruler (apposition, "explicative attribute").
The possessive complement expresses a relation between the subject and one of the objects; in Clalian we have to distinguish three cases:
a) possessive concord between subject and
e.g. I sell my sheep: Gins'na fa aunnat.
b) possessive concord between subject and indirect object
e.g. I sell the sheep of my father: Gins'na aunnat fa ferç ed na.
c) possessive concord between subject and complement to the indirect object
e.g. I sell the sheep to the father of my friend: Gins'na aunnat ferç nau lyver.
If we want to emphasize the object in a),
resp. if a possessive complement occurs, which does not correspond
with one of the acting persons of the sentence (agents) (e.g.
He sells sheep to my father), the full possessive pronoun
is used; e.g. Nau aunnat ta gins'na resp.
Gins'te aunnat nau ferç.
In the case that one of the objects in b) or c) having a possessive complement is to be emphasized, fa ... ed is used; e.g.: Aunnat ta gins'na fa ferç ed na resp. Ferç fa lyver ed na, ja gins'na aunnat.
To an a preposition can also be added; e.g. Gart'na fada fièxe gam an fe ras: I saw the man on the mountain. From this we have to distinguish cases in which the prepositions stand by a direct object! E.g. Gart'na fada fièxe uf gam fe ras: I saw a man on the mountain
III.4. Attributive Subordinate
Attributive clauses are subordinate clauses which function as an attribute. Here we have to distinguish relative and conjunctional clauses.
III.4.1. Relative Clauses
Depending on whether the constituent of the sentence explicated by the relative clause is itself subject or object of the subordinate clause, different kinds of introductions of the sentence result. Word order in the subordinate clause is the same as in the main clause.
If the constituent of the main clause elucidated by the sentential complement (attributive subordinate clause) is itself the subject of the attributive clause, the relative clause is introduced by several coordinating particles; their choice depending on the status the constituent (which is to be explained) has in the main clause:
a) if the subject of the main clause
is qualified, the particle ca is used (S [AC] = S [MC])
*AC: attributive clause; MC= main clause
b) if the direct object of the main clause is elucidated by the attributive clause, then ça is used (S [AC] = dO [MC])
c) but if the indirect object is qualified in the attributive clause, na is used (S [AC] = iO [MC]).
a) (S [AC] = S [MC]): Gam, ca da'te fe ras, gart'te nau ferç: The man (who stands) on the mountain is my father.
b) (S [AC] = dO [MC]): Gins'na aunnat, ça ut'tu cair saln mal mal: I sell the sheep which have the best fleece.
c) (S [GS] = iO [HS]): Gins'na aunnat gam, na gif'te du cyslan: I sell the sheep to a man who lives in the city.
If the constituent of the main clause is
itself object of the attributive subordinate clause, it
is introduced by the demonstrative and the relative particle (in
that order!); e.g. Gam, ta ja fièx'na
fe ras, gart'te nau ferç: The man, whom I see on the
mountain, is my father. Or: Gam, ta ja gins'na
fa aunnat, gif'te du cyslan: The man to whom I sell my sheep,
lives in the city.
Here it is of no importance if the qualified constituent is itself subject or object of the main clause. Compare to the above sentence: Bid'na gam, ta ja fa fràtmer aide: I trust the man whom my enemies hate. The combination ta ja can also follow prepositions.
Like the relative clauses conjunctional clauses in attributive function qualify constituents of the main clause (in functional respect we have to distinguish attributive subordinate clauses which are in themselves subject or object of a superordinate sentence). The most common introducing conjunction is ti; e.g. Gart'te fada da'e cansen na, ti nau fràtmer tire fada wante fraç na: He told me that my enemies had mocked me (lit. He gave me a message that...). Other conjunctions in this function are e.g. fad, 'as' (e.g. Gart'te fada da'e trigen, fad gad'ana fa sàllmer: He advised me how I should command my warriors).
II.5. Subordinate Clauses
Subordinate clauses are either a constituent of a superordinate clause -- being the subject or direct object of the main clause -- or function as adverbial clause to the predicate. Subject- and object clauses are introduced by ti (that), wi (what, who, which, etc.), interrogative adverbs (edfi: from where, duvi: where, revi: why? etc.) and ain (if). Adverbial clauses are introduced by other conjunctions.
Examples for subject and object clauses:
a) Wi were gana, ta gene nyb: Who looks for love, is hunting clouds.
b) Friec'te, ain win'ame tase: He asks if you come today.
c) Revi cufte ta, we ges'na: I don't know why you want that.
As can be seen by the examples above, in the subordinate clause the word order of modified main clauses is used; i.e. main clauses in which the predicate takes second position. The introducing words here have the first position. Surrogate elements like ta in the third sentence are obligatory in Clalian!
A special type of the subordinate clauses introduced by an interrogative pronoun or adverb are dependent interrogative clauses. They are necessary complements to the action indicated by the verb (the question) and are therefore neither subject- nor object clauses.
III.6. Subjunctive Forms in Subordinate
In dependent interrogative clauses and in adverbial clauses, the action indicated in the main clause often has subjunctive forms. While the subjunctive is obligatory in dependent interrogative clauses (provided they are not "disguised" commands -- because then the intentionalis is to be used), it is used in adverbial clauses only in the following cases:
- in final clauses after ence (to fear); e.g. Enc'na, ti win'ate: I fear he comes (could come).
- in consecutive clauses after negative expressions; e.g. We garte mel gerb, ti ges'ate hàll: Nobody is so wise that he knows (lit. "knew") everything
- in temporal clauses in certain cases after dan, dana; e.g. Gen'itu tu, dan dant'ate mal mal: They wanted to hunt him until he would be totaly exhausted
- in conditional clauses when the circumstance denoted by the conditionalis is unsure; e.g. Wed ta ait'ate, àrr'te: If you were to believe this, you would be wrong
- in comparative clauses after wed; e.g. Fus'ga, wed gart'aha minlan: You are ashamed as if you were children.
III.7. Word Order in Texts
Because of the fact that in Clalian the sentential focus stands always at the beginning of a sentence, it is often the case that the subject resp. object retreats behind the focus; e.g. Sàllmer garte fada xafe rymer. Dicet saln ta tire garte: The warrior drove of the thieves. That was a good deed.
Here 'good deed' is moved to the beginning of the sentence.
If the direct or indirect object are to be the subject of the following sentence, they are represented by the demonstrative pronoun. Here ta is used for the direct, gal for the indirect object. Examples: Sàllmer garte fada xafe rymer. Ta garte byhe at hell: The warrior drove of the thieves. They fled into the wood.
Or: Sàllmer garte fada trege miger fraç rymer. Gal garte fada gahese mal mal: The warrior helped the boy against the thieves. This one was very glad.