II.6.9. Infinitives and Participles
Infinitives and participles distinguish thematic and athematic flexion as well as the different forms. They form present, aorist, perfect (only athematic forms) and future (represented by the so-called "Participium Necessetatis" with the participles) in active and medial forms.
a) thematic flexion:
Generally the infinitive of thematic verbs is built along the following line:
active: tense stem + theme vowel (e) + -meni/nni
medium: tense stem + theme vowel (-a-) + -nu
Note: -meni stands behind a stressed theme vowel, else -nni
is used. The infinitive is not declined.
As examples a few verbs of each infinitive are listed:
inf. pres.: vèrenni (to be bringing), yìgnenni (to be bearing, to be giving birth to), yòngenni (to be connecting).
inf. aorist (only stem aorist): brèmeni
(to bring), gnèmeni (to bear), tellnèmeni
(to tolerate, to suffer), veblakèmeni (to bloom).
inf. future: vèsseni (will bring), yènenni (will bear), yeyangèmeni (will connect); fìsenni (will look for).
inf. pres.: veranu (being brought), yignanu (being born), yonganu (being connected), feyanu (being looked for = to be seen), areyanu (being dried)
inf. aor.: bronu (to be brought),
gnònu (to be born), tellnònu (to be
inf. fut.: vessanu (will be brought); yenanu (will be born), yeyangònu (will be connected), fisanu (will be looked for = will be seen).
b) athematic flexion:
The athematic infinitive is built along the following lines:
active: tense stem + -eni
medium: tense stem + -nu
Note: Stems ending on a vowel have only the ending -ni; some exceptions have the epenthetic vowel -e- before the medial suffix.
At first only purely athematic verbs are
shown as examples, afterwards the thematic "transitions".
-) active: purely athematic verbs
Inf. Präs.: geleni (to be willing, to be wanting), ereni (to be setting into motion), eyeni (to be), sêni (to be standing), dûni (to be giving), demêni (to be building).
inf. aor. (stem aorist): gini (will, want, suppletive), voni (to be, suppletive), sani (to stand), dani (to give);
(ext. aor.): îsseni (set into motion), demêyeni (build), êgeni (to praise).
inf. perf. (w. redupl.): pepani (to have drunken), dedani (to have given), sesuni (to have stood);
(VC): oigegni (to have praised), èrerni (to have set into m.); àlalni (to have fed);
(w. augment): èstroni (to have strewn);
(without redupl.): gudeni (to know!).
inf. fut.: giolseni (will be willing, will be wanting), sîyeni (will be standing), eseni (will be being); eriarni (will be setting in motion).
-) medium: purely athemat. verbs
inf. pres.: giolnu (will be wanted*), iarnu (will be set in m.), dûnu (will be given), demênu (will be built).
* In keeping with our practice of translating the present of Fergiatic with the present progressive of English, we would have to write "will be being wanted".Since this sounds rather awkward in english, we use the form above.
inf. aor. (RA): ginu (will be wanted), danu (will be given);
(ext. a.): îssnu (will be set in m.), demênu (will be built), êgnu (will be praised);
inf. perf. (w. redupl.): pepanu (will have been drunk), dedanu (will have been given), sesanu (will have been placed);
(VC): oigegnu (will have been praised), èrernu (will have been set in m.), àlalnu (will have been fed);
(w. augm.): èstronu (will have been strewn)
(without redupl.): gunnu (to be known).
Inf. Fut. ginu (will be wanted; exception), senu (will be placed), eriassnu (will be set in m.).
-) forms of thematic verbs (aorist, perfekt) active
inf. aor. (ext. aor.): yêngeni (to connect), fêyeni (to look for), arêyeni (to dry);
(intrans. aor.): gendîni (have), tesîni (be silent);
inf. perf. (w. redupl.): vèvarni (to have brought), yèyanni (to have born), lèlunni (to have let), tètalni (to have tolerated), vèblani (to have bloomed);
(VC): oyani (to have increased);
(w. augm.): èhorni (to have run to and fro), èfayeni (to have looked for), epyeni (to have seen);
(without redupl.): yaiyeni (to have thrown).
-) Forms of thematic verbs: medium:
inf. aor. (ext. a.): yênni
(be connected), fênu (be seen), arênu
(intrans. a.): gendînu (have for oneself);
inf. perf. (w. redupl.): vèvarnu (to have been brought), yèyannu (to have been connected), lèlunnu (to have been let), tètalnnu (to have been tolerated);
(VC): oyanu (to have been increased);
(w. augm.): efunu (to have been looked for), epyenu (to have been seen; w. epenthetic vowel).
Of the active participles, present and aorist are formed by the same suffix. The perfect has its own suffix. In contrast to the infinitive the suffices are the same for both kinds of flexion (them. and athem.). Participles are declined like adjectives.
Active participles: 2.
Present and aorist:
themat.: tense stem + themevowel a/o + nt + case endings
athemat.: tense stem + ant + case endings
Note: Vocalic ending athemat. verbs only have -nt.
(m., n.): tense stem + -vus- + case endings
(f.) tense stem + -as- + case endings
Note: The tense stem of feminine participles have a reduced form. Thus -vus- becomes -bus after l, m and n (with n Þ m), and -us- after b, p and -ng. -d-+ -vus+ Þ -bus-.
medial participles: 1. adjectival declension
Present and aorist:
themat.: Tense stem + themevowel -e- + nn-/-men- + case endings
athemat.: tense stem + men + case endings
Note: For the difference between -nn-/-men- the same holds true as for the infinitive.
tense stem + -men- + case endings
Note: In contrast to the personal froms the tense stem shows
a reduced form. The stress is on the suffix.
a) active forms:
Here a few examples of thematic and athematic verbs are sufficient.
thematic: verant, -i, -e (be bringing); yignant, -i, -e (be bearing); yongant, -i, -e (be connecting); feyant, -i, -e (be looking for).
athematic: gelant, -i, -e (be willing, wanting); erant, -i, -e (be setting into m.); sant, -i, -e (be standing); demànt, -i, -e (be building).
thematic: bront, -i, -e (bringing); tellnònt, -i, -e (tolerating);
athematic: gint, -i, -e (willing); sant, -i, -e (standing); îssant, -i, -e (setting into m.); yêngant, -i, -e (connecting); gendènt, -i, -e (having);
|èharbus||erdasi||run to and fro|
b) medial forms
thematic: vèrenna, -a, -an (being brought), yìgnenna, -a, -an (being born); yòn- genna, -a, -an (being connected); fèyenna, -a, -an (being looked for);
athematisch: giolmena, -a, -an (being wanted); dûmena, -a, -an (being given); demêmena,-a, -an (being built);
thematisch: bremena, -a, -an (being brought); gnemena, -a, -an (being born); tellnemena, -a, -an (being tolerated);
athematisch: gimena, -a, -an (being wanted); îssmena, -a, -an (being set in motion); yêmmena, -a, -an (being connected); demamena, -a, -an (being built);
-) Perfect: (in part with epenthetic -e-)
vevermèna, -a, -an (have been brought); yeyemmèna, -a, -an (have been born); lelimmèna, -a,
-an (have been let); oyaimèna, -a, -an (have been increased; Ausn.); estramèna, -a, -an (have been strewn); gimmèna, -a, -an (be known)
II.6.9.3. The gerundive:
The gerundive (or Participium Necessetatis), which denotes that something must to be done, is formed from the pure stem by affixing of -tev- and the case endings of the 1. adjectival declension.
Examples: viarteva, -a, -an (what must be brought); yenteva, -a, -an (what must be born); yointeva, -a, -an (what must be connected); blûtteva, -a, -an (what must bloom); stroiyetva, -a, -an (what must be destroyed); tolnetva, -a, -an (what must be tolerated); etc.
Note: -tev-becomes -tv-with verbs with a epenthetic vowel.
II.6.10. Irregular Verbs
Four verbs which we have encountered in part before, are special cases which have - to a large degree - suppletive stems. The fourth special case, gudeni (to know) has only perfect and pluperfect forms. The other three special cases are to be charaterised in the following:
a) ini (to go):
ini forms its perfect from the suppletive stem gêni; compare: present: imi, î (Ü *iyi), iti, ime, ite, inti; perfect: gega, gegasa, gege, gegame, gegate, gegant. In the infinitive and the participle of the perfect this stem also occurs: inf.: gegani (have gone); part.: gegavus, gegusi, gègavuse (gone). The subjunctive is built from a reduced stem; e.g. yan, ye,etc.
b) geleni (will, want):
geleni has suppletive forms in the aorist and the future and that throughout all moods and genera verbi. Sometimes it is used only in some persons and sometimes thorughout a whole paradigm. In the following the regular as well as the suppletive froms of aorist and future are listed.
ind. act.: gin, gi, git, gime, gite, gint; ind. med.: gime, giyu, gitu, gimese, gibe, gintu; subj. act.: yon, ye, yet, yome, yete, yont; subj. med.: yoma, yeya, yeta, yomesa, yebe, yonta; opt. act.: giyen, giye, giyet, giyem, giyet, giyent; opt. med.: giyema, giya (because of haplologie); giyeta, gìyenda, giyebe, gìyenta; infinitive: gini; participle: gint, -i, -e.
ind. act.: giolsu, gissi, giolsi, giolne, giolse, giolsent; ind. med.: gime, gissu, giolsu, giolnese, giolbe, giolsentu; inf.: giolseni.
The past tenses are built strictly by analogue.
c) eyeni (to be):
The last of the special cases has suppletive forms in the ind. pres. and the aorist. The special forms of the subjunctive aorist we have already touched in 6.4.1., as well as the opt. pres. Note: eyeni has no medial forms!
ind.: emi, voiyi, esi, vome, vote, hant; subj.: eyan, eye etc.; inf.: eyeni; part. pres.: hent, -i, -e;
and.: voin, voi, voit, me, se, hant; opt.: voyen, voye, voyet, voyem, voyet, voyent; inf.: voni; part.: vont, -i, -e.