II.2. Phonetic changes of East-Elven

II.2.1 Accent
The consequent initial accent of Fénilar led to a raising of initial vowels and a weakening of vowels in medial and final syllables. Quite often the following vowel was lost. As a consequence there was a collision of consonants, which was incompatible to the rules of Proto-Elven, and which led in turn to an assimilation.

II.2.2. Vowels
In consistency with the above we will show the development of vowels in Eastern Elven in three steps: vowels in initial syllable, vowels in medial and vowels in final syllables.

1.) Initial syllables
As was shown above, there was a raising of initial vowels in East-Elven and a monophtongisation of diphtongs.



Þ e; e.g.: bardwav Þ berdov (singing, song, m.); gazal Þ gerl (shining)
1. before l + consonant, the medial stage -e- further developed to -o-, e.g.: althaio
Þ olthia (frost, m.)


Þ e; e.g.: árdól Þ érdul (pride, f.)


becomes i; e.g.: bewos Þ bios (thing, m.)
1. before -r- there was no change to [i]; e.g.: erdal (caring)
2. before [l] [i] was further rounded to [y]; e.g.: celda
Þ cyld (happy)


accordingly becomes [i:]; e.g.: dénme Þ dínam (dreamer, m.)


stays unchanged; e.g.: ginthe Þ ginth (thought, thinking, m.)
1. in front of [r] [i] was lowered to [e]; e.g.: birca
Þ berc (town, castle, m.)
2. before [l] [i] was rounded and became [y]; e.g.: ilme
Þ yll (captain, m.)


in contrast to the short vowel, í was changed to [ai] (breaking); e.g.: rílim Þ raill (tone, sound, m.)
1. before consonant + [
c] the breaking did not happen and the vowel became short; e.g.: dírach Þ dirch (plane, m.)


changed to [u]; e.g.: fol Þ ful (from); doral Þ durl (sticky)


Þ [u:]; e.g.: dónial Þ dúial (fleeing, fugitive)


like [i] it stayed unchanged; e.g.: unta Þ unt (bed, couch, m.)
1. + [r] it was lowered to [o]; e.g.: turil
Þ torl (iron, m.)
2. before [l] the vowel was raised to [y]; e.g.: drulme
Þ dryll (rivulet, m.)


was broken to [au] ; e.g.: múnian Þ mauian (I grab)


Þ [i]; e.g.: cyta Þ cit (sandy)

In words of one syllable the vowels often stayed unchanged; e.g.: ian (and, also); ac (for); but: ful (out - of)!


Þ a; e.g.: aifal Þ áfal (young); baidal Þ bádal (graceful)


Þ á; e.g.: gausath Þ gásath (stranger)


was lengthened to [e:]; e.g.: beindis Þ béndes (knowledge, m.); ddeinigh Þ ddéni (wistful)


changed to [u:] via a medial stage [iu]; e.g.: geora Þ gúr (horn, m.); eoldeth Þ últh (scout, m.).


becomes í; e.g.: siadd Þ sídd (people, m.)

2.) Medial Syllables

Vowels which followed directly after the stressed syllable were mostly lost. Examples: gazal Þ gerl (shiny); rílim Þ raill (tone, sound.); turil Þ torl (iron, m.) ); althaio Þ olthia (frost, m.).
This development was also true for previously stressed vowels; e.g.: Eleion
ilian (forefathers, ancestors).
Sometimes new vowels developed from liquids and nasals which became syllabic; e.g.: aifal
Þ *áfl Þ áfal (young); dénme Þ dínam (dreamer, m.).

For all other cases:

stayed unchaged; e.g.: gausath Þ gásath; aistaddanÞ ássaddan (to turn)
1. in the combination -wa- there was a change to [o] due to the labialising force of the semi-vowel; e.g.: bardwav
Þ berdov (singing, song, m.); drócwaddan Þ drúcoddan (to shorten)

e, i

Þ e; e.g.: suninilme Þ sunnill (general, m.); escelthe Þ iscelth (wagon, m.).

o, u

Þ a; e.g.: beindolach Þ béndalch (cleverness, f.)

Long vowels were shortened:


a; e.g.: tuláchis Þ tylach (those)

e, i

Þ i; e.g.: edéliaddan Þ idiliddan (to describe)

o, u

Þ u; e.g.: árdól Þ érdul (pride, f.)

Diphtongs lost their first element:

ai, ei, oi

Þ i


Þ u


Þ o; e.g.: eddeocha Þ iddoch (troup, m.)


Þ u; e.g.: slidduanin Þ sliddunan (twentiest).

3.) Final syllables
Short vowels in final syllables were lost e.g.: geora
Þ gúr (horn); escelthe Þ iscelth (wagon, m.). This was also true for the most endings of declinitions; e.g.: siaddo Þ sídd (of the people).
For the developments after semi-vowels, see II.2.3.
Long vowels were shortened: á
Þ a; é, í Þ i; ó, ú Þ u. Examples: georá Þ gúra; indaréch Þ indrich (hunter); celdón Þ cyldun (happiness).
Diphtonge were also reduced: ai, ei, oi
Þ i; au Þ u; ia, io Þ i; ua, eo Þ u. Examples: iswais Þ isuis (hit); georau Þ gúru (partitive of geora); metroigh Þ mitri (inhonest); indareo Þ indro (of the hunter).
Nasals and liquids which became syllabic, inserted an -a- ; e.g.: ceisim
Þ césam (blow, punch, m.).

II.2.3. Semi-vowels
Here we will also use the distinction between positions: initially - after consonants - between vowels.


stayed unchanged before a,o, and was lost before e and i; e.g.: ian (and, also); iesalon Þ islan (bitterness, f.).


became [v] before a, e, i and was already early lost before [o,u]; e.g.: wargil Þ vergal (demon, m.); worto Þ urt (thicket, m.).


after consonants the loss of following short vowels led to a change of [j] to [i] while in front of originally long vowels it remained: gidiudd Þ gididd (ban, f.); ddiliól Þ ddyliul (gentleness, f.).
1. partially [j] united with preceding consonants: -gj, kj, gj, nj-
Þ -jj- Þ -j-; e.g.: dónial Þ dúial (fugitive, fleeing); nocio Þ nuia (disaster, doom).


was vocalised in front of [e, i]; e.g.: iswais Þ isuis (hit). Before [o,u] it was lost and became [o] in the combination -wa-; e.g.: cerwos Þ ceros (fat, m.); bardwav Þ berdov (song, m.).
1. the sound [gw] became [v]; e.g.: théghwal
Þ thíval (small, few).

Because of the loss of short vowels in medial syllables and in final position the semi-vowels partially remained so that new combinations of consonant plus semi-vowel developed; ; e.g.: althaio
Þ olthia [olþja] (frost). In position after stressed vowels the semi-vowels built new diphtongs; e.g.: thawinól Þ *thewnól Þ theonul (wildness, m.). The following combinations occured:
a, e/i, o/u + j + V
Þ ei, i, ui; e.g.: leios Þ *lijs Þ lis (sun, m.); aiucal Þ *ejcal Þ eical (on your part).
a, e/i, o/u + w + V
Þ eo, io, u; e.g.: thawinól Þ theonul; bewos Þ *biws Þ bios (thing,m.).
In part [j] also remained; e.g.: eia (Gen. of ain, you).
Before new syllabic consonants both semi-vowels remained because of the epenthetic vowel; e.g. troiar
Þ truiar (truthfulness, f.).
1. between originally stressed [e] and syllabic nasals and liquids, [j] was lost; e.g.: ceial (panting, gasping)
Þ cial.

II.2.4. Consonants
Differently from the vowels, the consonants stayed mostly unchanged. But because of the elision of vowels in medial syllables there were many assimilatory developments. In difference to West-Elven there were also several consonant clusters which stay in contradiction to the rules of Eleiar.


páralon Þ pérlun (adroitness)


beindis Þ béndes (knowledge)


turil Þ torl (iron)
1. In the combination [st] the spirant assimilated the plosive; e.g.: aistaddan
Þ ássaddan (to turn).


dólus Þ dúll (stem)
1. [d] and [t] were lost before [ð] and [þ]; e.g.: eoldeth
Þ últh (scout, m.).


celda Þ cyld (happy)


ginthe Þ ginth (thinking)
1. In connection with [j] [g, k] were lost; e.g.: nocio
Þ nuia (disaster, doom,m.).


thurda Þ thord (angry)


ddeinigh Þ ddéni (wistful)

s, z

While [s] stayed unchanged, [z] genereally changed to [r] as in West-Elven; e.g.: gazal Þ gerl (shiny).
1. Final [s] remained,except in those cases were it assimilated to [r]; e.g.: béndes (knowledge), but: thures
Þ thorr (we).
2. The combination [rs] also changed to [rr]; e.g.: iosra
Þ iurr (blossom, f.).
3. After p, t, k [s] became [t]; e.g.: nucisigh
Þ nucti (pugnacious)

ch, gh

While [ch] stayed unchanged in most positions, [g] was lost in those cases were it had remained through the times of Eleiar; e.g.: ddeinigh Þ ddéni; ceighis Þ cés (Part. perf. pf céddan, to pant [Ü ceiaddan]).


This consonant was lost in all positions; e.g.: aldahar Þ oldar (flute, f.); harma Þ erm (blood, f.).

Nasals stayed in most cases unchanged. But they assimilated to preceding [l]; e.g.: dryll (rivulet). Syllabic [n, m] changed to -an, am-; e.g.: dénme
Þ *dínm Þ dínam (dreamer). In connection with [j] the nasal was lost (s.a.). In connection wit [n, m] an assimilation of nasals occured; e.g.: lamilan Þ *lanlan Þ lallan (I will see).

These consonants also remained in most cases. But [l] assimilated following nasals; e.g.: rílim
Þ raill (tone, sound). This happened also in those cases, where [l] stood behind [d, t] through the elision of vowels, which it consequently assimilated; e.g.: baedalon Þ bállan (grace, f.).

By the elision of vowels in direct position after stressed syllables and of final vowels assimilations occured in the process of the reduction of consonant clusters. Examples: eoldeth
Þ *úldth Þ últh; dónulfe Þ dúllfe (leprosy, m.); dreisaddan Þ dréssan to grow).