II.6. Verbs
II.6.1. Introduction

Generally the fergiartic verb distinguishes two genera verbi (active, medio-passive), four moods (indicative, subjunctive, optative, imperative) and eight tenses (present, aorist, perfect, future and the derived tenses of the past imperfect, 2nd aorist, pluperfect and future II). Apart from the second future all forms of the verb are formed synthetically (i.e. by modification of the stem). To this are added the respective infinitives and participles as well as a gerundive. After the mode in which the single personal forms are added to the stem two main classes of flexion are distinguished: thematic and athematic (or strong and weak) flexion. This difference runs through all forms except for the perfect.

With the thematic (strong) verbs a so-called "thematic vowel" is put in between the verbal stem and the personal ending; the vowel is -a- (resp. -o- when it is accentuated and -u- in the subjunctive) with the first, fourth and sixth person, and -e- with the other persons.

II.6.2. Thematic Flexion

After the formation of their stem nine classes of the present are distinguished. But the behaviour of the single verbs is only partially predictable from this division, because other conditions decide the kind of formation (albeit with a few exceptions).

1. thematic class:
To this class belong the "simple" verbs; i.e. verbs without extension, resp. all the verbs which do not belong to the classes 3 - 10. These are verbs like gênenni (to be grasping), lìkenni (to be letting) and vèrenni (to be bringing, carrying).

Note: Using the present progressive in the translation of the Fergiatic present does not signify a similarity in usage of the two tenses, since the Fergiatic present denotes an aspectual meaning rather than a temporal one.

2. thematic class:
This class contains verbs with reduplicated present. Reduplicated is always the first consonant while the stem appears in a reduced form. Compare: yignu (I am producing, bearing), yeyane (I have produced) of yìgnenni (to be producing, bearing). Thus also dikket (it fits), dedase (it has fit) of dìkenni (to be fitting)
3. thematic class:
To this class belong all verbs ending in -y (exception: iterative/intensive verbs of the fourth group). These are on the one hand extended stems like gaiyenni (to be coming) or fêyenni (to be looking for), furthermore denominative verbs like òyenni (to be increasing) of oya (increase, m.) and finally extensions of second degree like stroiyenni (to be destroying, scattering entirely) of stroinenni (to be scattering). A sub-group of the third class ends on conconant + y like haipyenni (to be seeing), but forms its present by the pattern of the third class.
4. thematic class:
This class contains iterative and intensive verbs on -y and -sh; these are mostly derived from athematic verbs. Into this group belongs e.g.: pîyenni (to be destroying) from pîni (to be damaging) or kroishenni (to be calling out) to kroini (to be calling).
Another group among these verbs contains intensive verbs on -t like yàttenni (to be hurling, slinging) to yaiyenni (to be throwing) and iteratives like hêrenni (to be running to and fro) or mênenni (to be brooding).
5. thematic class:
In the fifth class we find verbs derived from nouns and other verbs with an n-infix or -suffix. Verbs with the n infixed normally have reduced stems, like yòngenni (to be connecting, harnessing) to yoyan (yoke, n.). Verbs with a nasal suffix are e.g.: tòlnenni (to be suffering, tolerating) or stroinenni (to be scattering).
6. thematic class:
To the sixth class belong all inchoative verbs, who have in part reduced stems or such with a long vowel, ending mostly on -k. Examples: blûkenni (to be blossoming), lêkkeni (to be starting to go, beginning).
7. thematic class:
Here belong all causative verbs on -èy- like arèyenni (to be drying), desèyenni (to be preparing, making up) or sesèyenni (to be blinding). But there are also other types (e.g. deverbatives with causative meanings).
8. thematic class:
This class contains derivations of adjectives which have a broader meaning; these end on -mb. Examples: pràmbenni (to be heading, leading, presiding), pòmbenni (to be reducing) oder gratàmbenni (to be greeting).
9. thematic class:
This last thematic class contains the stative verbs (denoting a state of things) like gendîmeni (to be having), tasîmeni (to be silent) or letêmeni (to be hidden). In the present these verbs have a -y- after the vowel of the extension, in the aorist only the vowel; compare: gendîyu (I am having), but gendîn (I have).

The conjugation of all these verbs is mainly uniform in the present indicative and subjunctive active and medio-passive, as well as in the imperative and the optative (active and medium). In the following we will demonstate the paradigm of vèrenni (to be bringing, carrying).

-) present indicative active:

1. pers. veru 4. pers. veram
2. pers. verey 5. pers. veret
3. pers. veret 6. pers. verant

-) medium

1. pers. verame 4. pers. vèrande
2. pers. vereyu 5. pers. verebe
3. pers. veretu 6. pers. vèrantu

-) present subjunctive active:

1. pers. verun 4. pers. verum
2. pers. vere 5. pers. veret
3. pers. veret 6. pers. verunt

-) medium

1. pers. veruma 4. pers. vèrunde
2. pers. vereya 5. pers. verebe
3. pers. vereta 6. pers. vèrunta

-) imperative active:

 2. pers. ver! 5. pers. viarte!

Note: The proper form of the fifth person of the imperative is -te.

-) medium

 2. pers. vereya! 5. pers. veresa!

-) present optative active:

1. pers. verun 4. pers. verum
2. pers. veru 5. pers. verut
3. pers. verut 6. pers. verunt

-) medium:

1. pers. veruma 4.pers. vèrunda
2. pers. veruya 5. pers. verube
3. pers veruta 6. pers. vèrunta

II.6.3. Athematic Flexion
The athematic or weak verbs are ordered into four classes, to which some special cases are added. Here, also, the conjugation of the single classes in the present indicative/subjunctive etc. are mostly uniform; insofar as a reduced form of the stem is used in the fourth to sixth person in contrast to the first to third person - albeit this is blurred in part by phonetic developments.
1. athematic class:
The first class of athematic verbs contains all the mono-syllabic stems of the type C(C)v(X), which end on a short vowel, a nasal or a liquida, as well as all the vocalic verbs. Examples: kroini (to be calling), sini (to be lying), luni (to be washing), hiarnu (to be moving oneself, medial verb), meneni (to be thinking) and ini (to be going).
2. athematic class:
To this class belong all the verbs of the stem-type VC like ereni (to be setting into motion), aleni (to be feeding) or edeni (to be eating). These verbs are also wholly regular in the plural (if they end on a nasal or a liquida), even if this does not appear so on first glance: compare: alni (I am feeding, m. -lm-
Þ -ln-), alne (we are feeding), eru (I am setting into motion), arme (we are setting into motion). With verbs like edeni reduplication of the type VC-VC occurs, with a change of the vowel in the second syllable; compare: edu (I am eating), èdamme (we are eating), èdatte (you are eating), etc.
A subdivision of these verbs retains its original stem in the plural; compare: emi (I am resting), eme (we are resting); to îyeni (to be resting). Further examples: ûreni (to be talking) - ormi (I am talking) - orte (you are talking); êreni (to be plowing) - armi (I am plowing).
3. athematic class:
In the third class mono-syllabic verbal stems with a long vowel in the first three persons can be found. In the rest of the paradigm a reduplication as in the second class of thematic verbs occurs; but in the reduced form of the stem another vowel appears (compare: didame: we are giving, but: dikket: it fits). A part of the stems beginning with s- has hi- in the reduplicated syllable. Examples (with redupl.): p1îni (to be filling): pìpla-; pôni (to be drinking): pìpa-; sêni (to be standing): hìsa-; sîni (to be setting down): sìsa-; vêni (to be saying): vìva-.
4. athematic class:
Here we can find verbs with a long vowel in the second syllable like demêni (to be building), perîni (to be lighting, setting fire to) or pelêni (to be spreading, extending). These show no reduplication, but have the reduced vowel (while keeping the accent); so e.g.: demêmi (I am building) - demàme (we are building).

Of the special cases of athematic verbs only two are important regarding the present: eyeni (to be) forms its second, fourth and fifth person from a suppletive stem: voiyi (you are), vome (we are) and vote (you are); in contrast: emi, esi, hant (I am, he is, they are). gudeni (know) has no present tense, instead its perfect has the meaning of the present.

As example for the paradigm of the present of athematic verbs kroini (to be calling) is used in the following:

-) present indicatice active:

1. pers. kroimi 4. pers. krome
2. pers. kroiyi 5. pers. krote
3. pers. kroiti 6. pers kronti

-) medium:

1. pers. kroime 4. pers. kromese
2. pers. kroiyu 5. pers. krobe
3. pers. kroitu 6. pers. krontu

-) present subjunctive active:

1. pers. krevan 4. pers. krevam
2. pers. kreve 6. pers. krevet
3. pers. krevet 6. pers. krevant

Note: Like we can see with kroini, in the 4. - 6. person of the subjunctive no reduction of the stem takes place. As with sini (to be lying): seyam etc., an -y- can occur in the stem. With verbs of the third class (except cases like pôni, drinking: payam) the reduplication is kept throughout all persons; e.g. the forms of vêni (to be saying): vivun, vive, vivet, vivam, vivet, vivunt.
Verbs of the fourth class insert an -n- into the stem: demànan, demàne, demànet, demànam, demànet, demànant.

-) medium:

1. pers. krevan 4. pers. krevam
2. pers. kreve 5. pers. krevet
3. pers. krevet 6. pers. krevant

-) imperative active:

 2. pers. kroi! 5. pers. kroite!

Note: Some verbs (especially those of the third and fourth class) have -di resp. -si as the suffix of the second person; compare: iardi!, sêsi!, demêsi!

-) medium:

 2. pers. kroiya! 5. pers. kroisa!

-) optative active:

1. pers. kroyen 4. pers. kroyem
2. pers. kroye 5. pers. kroyet
3. pers kroyet 6. pers kroyent

Note: The special case eyeni (to be) shows the following forms: shîn, shî, shît, shîm, shît, shent. Characteristic is also the building principle of edeni (to be eating): yîn, yî, yît, yîm, yît, yent.

-) Medium:

1. pers. kroyema 4. pers. kroyenda
2. pers. kroyeya 5. pers. kroyebe
3. pers. kroyeta 6. pers. kroyenta

Note: eyeni and edeni form their medium strictly after their special peculiarities: shîma, shîya, shîta, shîmesa, shîbe, shinta etc., resp. yîma, yîya etc.